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Cement clinker is a solid material produced in the manufacture of Portland cement as an intermediary product. Clinker occurs as lumps or nodules, usually 3 millimeters (0.12 in) to 25 millimeters (0.98 in) in diameter. It is produced by sintering (fusing together without melting to the point of liquefaction) limestone and aluminosilicate materials such as clay during the cement kiln stage.

Clinker consists of various calcium silicates including alite and belite. Tricalcium aluminate and calcium aluminoferrite are other common components. These components are often generated in situ by heating various clays and limestone.

Portland cement clinker is made by heating a homogeneous mixture of raw materials in a rotary kiln at high temperature. The products of the chemical reaction aggregate together at their sintering temperature, about 1,450 °C (2,640 °F). Aluminium oxide and iron oxide are present only as a flux to reduce the sintering temperature and contribute little to the cement strength. For special cements, such as low heat (LH) and sulfate resistant (SR) types, it is necessary to limit the amount of tricalcium aluminate formed. The major raw material for the clinker-making is usually limestone mixed with a second material containing clay as source of alumino-silicate. Normally, an impure limestone which contains clay or silicon dioxide (SiO2) is used. The calcium carbonate (CaCO3) content of these limestones can be as low as 80%. Second raw materials (materials in the rawmix other than limestone) depend on the purity of the limestone. Some of the second raw materials used are: clay, shale, sand, iron ore, bauxite, fly ash, and slag. The clinker surface and its reactions in different electrolytic solutions are investigated by scanning electron microscope and atomic force microscopy.


Sl. No Parameters/Composition Percentage
Physical Parameters
01. Moisture 0.50%
02. Size    00-01 MM 5% Max
             01-05 MM 15% Max
             05-30 MM 80% Min
             30-90 MM Nil
03. Bulk Density (Litre Weight) 1.2-1.4 Kg/L
Chemical Parameters
01. Calcium Oxide (Cao) 64-67%
02. Silicon di Oxide (SiO2) 20-22%
03. Aluminum Oxide (Al2O3) 4.5-6.5%
04. Ferric Oxide (Fe2O3) 3-4%
05. Magnesium Oxide (MgO) 3% Max
06. Sulphuric Anhydride (SO3) 1% Max
07. Sodium Oxide (Na2O) 0.5% Max
08. Potassium Oxide (K2O) 0.5% Max
09. Free Lime (F. CaO) 1% Max
10. Loss of Ignition (LOI) 0.5% Max
11. Insoluble Residue (IR) 0.5% Max
12. Tri Calcium Silicate (C3S) 60-65%
13. Di Calcium Silicate (C2S) 12-18%
14. Tri Calcium Aluminate (C3A) 7-12%
15. Tetra Calcium Aluminio Ferrite (C4AF) 7-12%
16. Lime Saturation Factor (LSF) 0.92-0.98